Fritillaria Kurdica, 13-14

Hejmara 13-14an a kovara me nivîsên înglîzî pêşkêşî xwendevanan dike. Çar nivîs bi endamên projeya me hat nivîsandin û çar yên din jî bi mêvanan an jî di çarçoveya projeyên din hat nivîsandin.





Seyedehbehnaz Hosseini

Life After Death in Manichaeism and Yārsān


The idea of resurrection (i.e. life after death) is a common thread amongst different religions; however, there are considerable differences in concepts regarding the return of the soul in this world. Like Manichaeism, there is a comparable belief in the Yārsāni Faith, referred to as Doon-ā-Doon. Significant similarities and differences among Manichaeism and Yārsān regarding resurrection underscore the motivation for conducting this study. From the analysis available ancient scripts, as well as viewpoints from Yārsāni scholars and leaders, this study attempts to obtain and offer a new, accurate, and pervasive interpretation of Yārsānis’ beliefs about life after death. Furthermore, the results obtained from this work will be analysed and compared with the obtained results with Manichaean beliefs, resulting in a new, innovative, and upgraded assessment.



Joanna Bocheńska

Ehmede Khani’s Hymn to Forgiveness. Salvation of Satan in the Kurdish Classical Poem Mem and Zin


The idea of this article is to consider Ehmede Khani’s concept of forgiveness as elaborated in Mem and Zin (1694). According to Paul Ricoeur, forgiveness concerns an enigma which can never be fully explained, however, the reflection on it is needed especially when any possible reconciliation is concerned. Ricoeur stresses that it is an enigma of fault “which is held to paralyze the power to act of the capable being”, and, on the other hand – “the enigma of the possible lifting of this incapacity, designed by the term forgiveness”. According to Ricoeur, forgiveness is evoked by “a voice from above” which originates in the Abrahamic religious heritage. It is rooted in the idea of unconditional love which is able to forgive even unforgivable. The aim of this paper is to present Ehmede Khani’s Mem and Zin as a part of the abovementioned Abrahamic heritage. In this article I will show that Khani’s idea was to elaborate on God’s limitless love and mercy that was able to forgive even unforgivable. That is why he wanted Satan, personified as Bekir in the poem, to receive forgiveness from God thanks to Zin’s intercession.



Krzysztof Lalik

The Impact of The Ottoman Policy on The Relations of Assyrians with Kurds. The Case of Bedr Chan’s uprising.


In this essay I would focus on elucidation of contribution of Ottoman policymakers in Bedr Khan’s massacre of Assyrians as an example of influence of other, external powers on internal relations of neighbouring subaltern societies/ ethnic groups. Key position in this deliberation will be held by the analysis of centralisation reforms in Ottoman Empire and the role of Beiraktar, Pasha of Mosul, he played in implementation of the centralisation plan in eastern provinces. But this will follow only after a presentation of a general description of political and demographic composition of Assyrian population in Ottoman Empire in 19th century since in order to understand a change that the Turkish policy exerted on these relation we have to depict first an image of the relation before the Ottomans direct engagement. The events of Bedr Khan’s uprising and resulting massacre of Assyrians is commonly perceived as a turning point in hitherto good relations between Kurds and Assyrians based mostly on coexistence since it sowed overt animosity among them for many following decades with its peak during 1890s and the First World War. This has led to coming down the interpretation of that relations to a continuous series of acts of enmity and mistreatment skipping examples of cooperation between them. Therefore it seems advisable to scrutinise the role of other players in boosting that hostility and that is primarily Turkish authorities in the case of Bedr Khan’s uprising and subsequent massacre.



Marcin Rzepka

The task of translation. Some remarks on the New Testament translation into Kurdish Мьзгини. Пəймана Ну (2000)


In 2000 the Kurdish translation of the New Testament called Мьзгини. Пəймана Ну was published by the Institute for the Bible Translation. The Institute founded in 1973 from its very beginning have dealt with Bible translations into non-Slavic languages used in Russia. In 1983 the translation work among the Kurds living in the Caucasus started. It was inspired – to some extent - by Kurds and one of them Nadr Ozmanyan was involved in the project. He emphasises the cultural role of the Bible translation into Kurdish. In fact the final book consists not only the translated text of the New Testament but also contains many additional information, notes, maps and glossary introducing the reader to the biblical realities and culture.



Renata Kurpiewska-Korbut

Modern Kurdish Theater in Turkey. Between Political and Non-Political Nature


Visible Kurdish theatrical scene is a relatively recent phenomenon in Turkey. Its development is constantly going between political and non-political inclinations what can be traced not only in an organizational platform but also in an artistic one. In spite of the pro-Kurdish reforms in Turkey resulting in making more freely artistic activities by the Kurds, there is still a variety of problems ahead of them that stem from reluctance, prejudice and authoritarian institutional ties. However, there are also some positive trends. The most striking and constructive feature of the contemporary Kurdish drama is striving for freedom from the previous anachronistic message based on propaganda and a simplistic way of expression.



Karol Kaczorowski

A Return of Forced Migration in Turkey?


Taking into consideration that emergency state was lifted in southeast of Turkey in 2002, but migration continued and negative net migration from Kurdish inhabited regions still have grown. It can be argued that between 2002 and 2015 there was a more voluntary flow of internal migration. It was based more on economic and educational needs and pull factors than push factors connected with physical conflict, which was the case during the 1980s and especially the 1990s in Turkey. With the failure of the peace process and drastic aftermath of coup attempt it can be argued that these changes will result in the wave of forced migration in the country. These processes can strengthen the atmosphere of insecurity in Turkey which will stimulate a wave of forced migration both in its internal and external aspects. The article aims at analyzing the events and their results which are connected with deterioration of security in Turkey, and that can lead to the rise in forced migration. It starts with a general overview of circumstances leading to resolution of armed conflict. The second part of the article points to some estimations of deadly consequences of it and closes with an attempt to search for some indicators of the beginning of a new wave of forced migration in Turkey.



Olga Sewiłło, Oskar Podlasiński

Mother Tongue Multilevel Kurdish Education in Northern Kurdistan


The recent development of Kurdish language education as well as intensified work preserving and promoting a language, and culture itself in the area of Northern Kurdistan (South-Eastern Turkey) is an interesting phenomenon functioning on multiple levels. Although with some restrictions, it is possible to learn Kurdish not only at school, but also at university as a part of BA and MA studies. Moreover, various institutions belonging to a private sector as well as some municipal ones provide numerous opportunities to take part in rich and vivid Kurdish culture. However the prolonged policy of shunning and marginalizing languages of minorities proved to be a serious disadvantage, especially to Kurdish children. It causes confusion in communication among them, their families and their peers, which may lead to identity problems while growing up and in their adult lives. This paper provides insight into the situation of Kurdish language education in South-Eastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), highlighting the linguistic, legal, and pedagogical aspects of schooling in the area.



Artur Rodziewicz

The Armenian Portrait of the Peacock Angel. A polemical review of Garnik Asatrian and Victoria Arakelova’s The Religion of the Peacock Angel.


The Yezidis and Their Spirit World. In a recently published book, two well-known Armenian scholars try to create a holistic portrait of the Yezidi religion. Besides an attempt to formalize the oral tradition, the authors present their own interpretations of some obscure elements of the Yezidism, as its name or origin. They present an original approach to these issues, in many places different from the opinions of some Western scholars. In the article, besides the presentation of the content, I discuss some of these topics.